Soft tissue rheumatism is one of the most common and most misunderstood categories of disorders facing the primary care physician. Among the more common types are subacromial bursitis, epicondylitis, trochanteric bursitis, anserine bursitis, and fibromyalgia. The keys to the diagnosis of soft-tissue rheumatism are the history and, more importantly, the physical examination. Extensive laboratory testing and radiographs are not as helpful in evaluating patients with these complaints. Treatment consists of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and nonnarcotic analgesics. Especially in patients with localized disorders, intralesional injections of corticosteroids are particularly effective and safe and should be part of the armamentarium of the primary care practitioner. Fibromyalgia is a particularly challenging form of nonarticular rheumatism. The clinical presentation is rather characteristic, with the patient typically being a woman 30-60 years of age who presents with diffuse somatic pain. Patients often give a history of sleep disturbance, may be depressed, and show characteristic tender areas, or trigger points. Laboratory findings are normal. Management includes reassurance, correction of the underlying sleep disturbance with low doses of a tricyclic antidepressant, treatment with muscle relaxants and nonnarcotic analgesics or NSAIDs, and an exercise program with a strong aerobic component.